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Trees

Welcome to the EcoPark!
 
We are thrilled that you're interested in learning more about the variety of trees that can be found within the EcoPark. Please remember to stay on the path when identifying/ spotting trees.

*All information, facts and details below were sourced from: http://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/tree-atlas

Listings that reference page numbers, were sourced from:

Kershaw, L. (2001). Trees of Ontario, including tall shrubs. Edmonton: Lone Pine Pub.
For more information about the book, please visit: http://www.lonepinepublishing.com/cat/9781551052748


Sugar Maple:

The sugar maple is a large tree that can grow up to 35 metres tall and can live for more than 200 years. Its yellowish-green leaves are 8 to 20 centimetres long, and have five lobes. The shape of the leaf is well known — it's found on the Canadian flag and the sugar maple is the national tree of Canada. In the fall, the sugar maple's leaves turn yellow, brilliant orange or red. Its bark is smooth and gray, and becomes darker and splits into ridges that curl out as the tree gets older. Seeds from the sugar maple are contained in "keys" which are 30 to 35 millimetres long. Seed is produced every year, with an abundant crop every 7 years.

Sugar maple gets its name from the sweet sap it produces which is used to make make syrup. Other maples can be used as well, but their sap is not nearly as sweet. It takes about 40 litres of sugar maple sap to make 1 litre of maple syrup.


Sugar Maple Tree Sugar Maple Leaf
Image Credit:
Daniel Tigner, Canadian Forest Tree Essences

Red Oak:

The red oak is usually 20 to 30 metres tall, with a thick trunk sometimes more than 120 centimetres in diameter. Its leaves are dark green and are 10 to 20 centimetres long. They have sharp, pointed lobes (usually 7 to 9) with bristly tips. Acorns from the red oak are 2 to 3 centimetres long and are round with a scaly cap that covers less than ¼ of the acorn. The bark of the red oak is smooth and dark gray when the tree is young, but deep ridges develop as the tree gets older.


Red Oak Tree Red Oak Leaf
Image Credit:
Daniel Tigner, Canadian Forest Tree Essences

Trembling Aspen:
 
Most people instantly recognize trembling aspen when the breeze picks up. The leaf stalk is flattened and longer than the leaf blade, and the slightest breeze causes the leaves to flutter. Young bark is smooth, pale grayish-white with horizontal lines, eventually growing dark and furrowed with age. The fluffy seeds are dispersed from hanging green capsules in late spring. Trembling aspen often grows in pure stands after disturbance, and succession will occur when young conifers or hardwoods seedlings take shelter and outgrow them.


Trembling Aspen Trees Trembing Aspen Leaf
Image Credit:
Daniel Tigner, Canadian Forest Tree Essences

Red Osier Dogwood: 

Wild Red Osier Dogwood grows in areas of damp soil, such as wetlands. The leaves grow opposite each other in an oblong shape. The fall colour is bright red to purple. The root system provides excellent soil retention, as such it is commonly used for waterway bank erosion protection and restoration projects throughout North America.

Referenced from page: 185

Red Oiser Dogwood
Image Credit: Janet Chester

 
Eastern White Cedar:

Cones from the eastern white cedar are 7 to 12 millimetres long and grow in clumps of 5 or 6 pairs. Small scaly leaves cover the tree’s fan-shaped twigs and are a yellowish-green colour.

The bark of the eastern white cedar is thin and shiny when the tree is young, but separates into flat narrow strips as the tree gets older. White-tailed deer eat the twigs of the eastern white cedar during the winter.

To learn more, visit: http://www.ontario.ca/page/eastern-white-cedar

Eastern White Cedar Tree Eastern White Cedar
Image Credit
Tree: University of Southern Maine
  • Needles: Ministry of Natural Resources

  • Highbush Cranberry: 

    Highbush Cranberry fruits are boiled and strained to make jellies and jams. The fruits smell a bit like dirty socks, but their flavour isn't bad. 

    The bark has been used to treat menstrual pains, stomach cramps, aching muscles, asthma, hysteria and convulsions.

    Referenced from page: 214

    Highbush Cranberry
    Image Credit: Janet Chester


    Eastern White Pine:
     

    The Eastern White Pine is Ontario's provincial tree and one of North America's most commercially valuable trees. 

    Eastern White Pine trees live about 200 years and product seed regularly after 20-30 years. 

    It has skinny needles that are 6 to 12 centimetres long. It’s easy to recognize the eastern white pine because its needles grow in bunches of five.

    The eastern white pine’s cones are 8 to 20 cm long and they hang down from the branches. Good seed crops aren’t produced until trees are 20 or 30 years old, and then only every 3 to 5 years. Its bark is dark greyish brown with broad thick ridges that are 2 to five centimetres thick.

    To learn more, visit: http://www.ontario.ca/page/eastern-white-pine

    Eastern White Pine Tree Eastern White Pine Needles
    Image Credit:
    Daniel Tigner, Canadian Forest Tree Essences

    Tamarack:
     
    Also known as American Larch, Tamarack is not valued for it's lumber. Instead, Tannin-rich tamarack bark was used for tanning leather.

    Tamarack trees grow to be about 20 metres tall. Its bark starts out smooth and gray when the tree is young, and turns reddish brown and scaly as the tree grows. Its needles grow in tufts of 10 to 20 (sometimes many more) and are 2 to 3 centimetres long. Most conifer trees keep their needles year round but tamaracks are deciduous conifers — their needles fall off in the autumn and new ones grow in the spring. They are soft and flexible bluish green except in the fall when they turn yellow before falling off. The tamarack's seeds grow inside light brown cones which are 1 to 2 centimetres long. Trees don't produce seeds until they are 10 years old.


    Tamarack Tree Tamarack Needles
    Image Credit:
    Tree: Daniel Tigner, Canadian Forest Tree Essences
  • Needles: Gary Fewless, University of Wisconsin

  • Staghorn Sumac: 

    With its showy fruit clusters and brilliant autumn foliage staghorn sumac is sometimes planted as an ornamental. However, its spreading, suckering roots can be troublesome. 

    The tannin-rich fruit, bark and leaves were used to tan hides. The leaves and fruits were also boiled to make black ink. In addition, the milky sap has been used as a treatment for warts. 

    Referenced from page: 175

    Staghorn Sumac Tree
    Image Credit: Ontario Trees & Shrubs